A course in modern analysis and its applications - download pdf or read online

By Graeme L. Cohen

ISBN-10: 0511061668

ISBN-13: 9780511061660

ISBN-10: 0511070128

ISBN-13: 9780511070129

Designed for one-semester classes for senior undergraduates, this booklet techniques issues first and foremost via convergence of sequences in metric area. notwithstanding, the choice topological technique is additionally defined. functions are incorporated from differential and necessary equations, platforms of linear algebraic equations, approximation idea, numerical research and quantum mechanics.

Cover; Half-title; Series-title; identify; Copyright; Contents; Preface; 1 Prelude to fashionable research; 2 Metric areas; three The fastened aspect Theorem and its functions; four Compactness; five Topological areas; 6 Normed Vector areas; 7 Mappings on Normed areas; eight internal Product areas; nine Hilbert area; Bibliography; chosen recommendations; Index.

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Example text

This follows using the two theorems above. For Q is countable, so Q X Q is countable, and there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between X and Q X Q, namely the mapping / : Q X Q —» X given by f ( ( x , y ) ) = x + iy, x , y G Q. Presumably, uncountable sets are bigger than countable sets, but is N X N bigger than N ? To make this notion precise, and thus to be able to compare the sizes of different sets, we introduce cardinality. 4 Any set X has an associated symbol called its cardinal number, denoted by |X|.

Does not exist. In this case, set ni = N; then let n2 be the smallest integer such that n2 > n\ and an2 > ani (n2 must exist, for otherwisean ^ ani for all n ^ N so that 6/v = ani); then let n 3 be the smallest integer such that n% > n2 and ans > ari2 (n3 must exist, for otherwisean ^ ari2 for all n ^ N so that 6 /v = ari2). 10. 7 Sequences 41 This completes the proof of the theorem, since both possibilities lead to the existence of a convergent subsequence of { a n}. □ Note the bonus in this proof: we have in fact shown that for any bounded sequence there exists a convergent subsequence which is mono­ tone.

The greatest lower bound of { a n} is denoted by glban or inf an, and similarly for lub, sup, max and min. 1 apply also for sequences. It follows from the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem that there exists at least one cluster point for a bounded sequence. It is the need for this statement and others like it to be true that motivates the inclusion of infinitely recurring sequencevalues in the definition of a cluster point for a sequence. 5 (least cluster point, greatest cluster point) also carries over for sequences, and in this context these quantities are called the least limit or limit inferior and the greatest limit or limit superior.

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A course in modern analysis and its applications by Graeme L. Cohen


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