By Owen Chadwick
May perhaps a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the factors and results of the top of the ancient Papal kingdom, and the mental pressures upon outdated Rome because it got here below assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never in simple terms from Italy, yet from liberal pursuits in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy used to be to be completed, the nation must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to aim to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly features of Catholic religion. while they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. hence, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority might be way more centralized in Rome.
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Additional info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
On 20 November 1837 police arrested the Archbishop and confined him in the fortress at Minden. The French Revolution and Napoleon kidnapped two popes and left Europe relatively unmoved. That a Protestant government should throw an archbishop into gaol caused vast indignation. The State claimed that this was necessary because of the revolutionary acts of the Archbishop. Pope Gregory XVI made an allocution to the cardinals (10 December i837), 20 that the Prussians trampled upon the liberties of the Church, that the office of bishop was treated with a total disrespect, and that the just rights of the pope were overthrown.
Throughout Germany and Austria, in whatever States there were now mixed denominations, the Cologne affair caused difficulty. Under the impact of the Enlightenment and then of Napoleon, all the States moved towards tolerance, part of which included an insistence that their citizens could marry in church without first needing to make promises about the future religious education of the children. It was natural that a Protestant country such as Saxony or Wurttemberg should practise this, but Austria was equally tough in its legal practice; and in Hungary, where the population was mixed, many local administrations fined parish priests if they tried to exact conditions before marriage.
It is surprising in that it has no rancour. It is the only calm book he ever wrote. But he made it very clear that he was no longer a servant of the Pope; and he passed among the working leaders of the radical French left, who at first did not trust him. His close disciples submitted to the condemnation, without exception. The way this was done by Lacordaire and Montalembert pained him. Though he turned to the extreme left, his friends went on. Lacordaire gave lectures at the College Stanislaus.
A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church) by Owen Chadwick