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Additional info for 2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume III: Organ Systems Book 1

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1) Sympathetic stimulatiot (F, receptors) and fever increasethe phase 4 slope, thereby increasingthe heart rate (Figure I-4-5). (2) Parasympatheticstimulation (M, receptors)and hypothermia decreasethe phase 4 slope,there\ decreasingthe heart rate (Figure I-4-5). b. The threshold potential c. The transmembrane potential at the start of phase4 (maximum diastolic potential). , a more negative maximum diastolic potential, which contributes to its abiliry to decreasethe heart rate (Figure I-4-5). mV t Sympathetic stimulation mV Figure l-4-5.

For example, vasoconstrictordrugs generallyincreasevascular resistanceand venomotor tone; therefore,such a drug would causean upward and rightward shift and leftward rotation of the venousreturn curve. (2) A small number of interventions changevascularresistanceonly. For example, increasesin blood viscosityincreasevascularresistancewithout changingMSFP. , a clot or tumor obstructing the vena cava) could increasevascular resistancewith only a negligible effect on MSFP. 3 . Interaction between the cardiac output curve and venous return curve.

Stroke volume (SV) representsthe volume of blood pumped by the ventricle per beat. SV can be calculatedby dividing the CO by the heart rate or as the difference between ventricular end-diastolicvolume (EDV) and end-systolicvolume (ESV). In the absenceof pathologic intracardiac shunts and valvular regurgitation, the stroke volumes of both ventricles are closelymatched. If valvular regurgitation is present,the total stroke volumes of the two ventricles may differ greatly. 2. The normal resting EF is 55 to 80o/o.

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2008 Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program-Brand New Volume III: Organ Systems Book 1 by Kaplan

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